Fire Detection And Alert Systems | Fire Alarm Installation

Fire Detection System South Africa

Fire Detection And Alert Systems | Fire Alarm Installation

Introduction

In order to protect property and, if necessary, life, fire detection protection systems can be installed and
the alarm which will perform a number of different functions:

  • detection and location of a fire;
  • providing assistance to contain and/or extinguish the fire;
  • emergency evacuation procedures;
  • call for fire fighting services.

It should be noted that a fire detection and alarm system can do nothing to reduce the incidence of fires. It can, however, reduce the time that elapses between ignition and the actual fight against the fire.

A system alarm satisfactory for the protection of property will automatically detect the fire when it starts, trigger an alarm effective in good time to call fire-fighting services, and indicate their location.

One alarm at most near the start of a fire reinforces the safety of personnel by increasing their chances of evacuation.
Taking into account the risk of fire and the measures taken to reduce the importance of the resulting danger, the speed of detection is the first criterion to be considered, followed by the activation of the extinguishing measures.

Detection devices are part of automatic fire detection and alarm systems. These systems continuously, or at frequent intervals, monitor the physical and/or chemical characteristics of an area (edge) protected against fire.

The function of the detectors is to locate fires as soon as possible, activate alarms by means of command and signaling, to take relevant measures to extinguish any possible outbreaks of fire, to evacuate personnel, and alerting the fire and rescue services.

These detectors operate in direct connection with fire alarm equipment and with automatic fire extinguishing systems, in order to minimize fire damage.

Detectors

Automatic detectors

According to their functional characteristics (detection techniques used) and their technological characteristics
(discrete identification or variable threshold detection), the detectors to be installed are classified as follows.

Heat detectors

These detectors are classified as follows, according to their type of thermal sensor:
  • Fixed temperature detectors: These detectors are designed to operate when they reach a preselected temperature threshold;
  • Thermal (derivative) gradient detectors: These detectors are designed to operate when the ambient temperature increases significantly. abnormally fast;
  • Mixed detectors: These detectors are designed to respond to fires developing both very slowly and
    quickly.

Smoke detectors

These detectors are classified as follows, according to their type of sensor:
  • Smoke detectors with ionization chamber: These detectors respond to the drop in intensity of an electric current flowing between the electrodes of an ionization chamber when smoke particles enter the chamber. They are particularly sensitive to fumes containing small particles, such as those produced during fires rapid combustion.
  • Optical smoke detectors: These detectors respond to the scattering or absorption of light caused by particles of smoke. They are sensitive to large particles in high optical density smoke which are produced by coal fires.
  • Volumetric or beam detectors: These detectors exploit the principle of optical darkening and do not detect the presence of smoke only in a small part of the beam. Some optical beam smoke detectors may also react to thermal turbulence caused by fire, by detecting the refraction of the beam at interfaces of turbulence between hot air and cold air.

Flame detectors

These detectors are classified as follows, according to their type of sensor:
  • Ultraviolet radiation detectors: These detectors use cells sensitive to ultraviolet radiation which receive photons from the fire either directly or through lenses or built-in reflectors.
  • Infrared radiation detectors: These detectors use cells sensitive to infrared radiation which receive photons from the fire either directly or through lenses or built-in reflectors. They are designed for react to the intermittent radiation that is emitted by the type of diffusing flame that is observed normally in fires.

Addressable detectors

These constituent elements of the fire alarm system have a discreet identification which makes it possible to identify their status individually or which is used to individually control other functions.

Smart detectors

These detectors have the ability to automatically change their detection threshold according to ambient conditions.

Manual detectors

These manually operated devices (manual alert points) are placed in buildings because they allow giving the alert earlier than the automatic detection-alarm system if the staff is present during the departure of a fire.

Manual buzzers (acoustic alarms)

Buzzers can be used manually to give a fire alarm. When other parts of the building are not likely to be affected by the fire, the system can be arranged so that the noisemakers are only activated manually in the fire zone and in the adjacent zones in order to evacuate personnel to safe areas.

It is recommended in General

Since a fire can start anywhere in a building and can, if not detected, develop until its extinction becomes difficult or impossible, the highest level of property protection is recommended, by installing a detection and alarm system throughout the building.

Frequency of checks

  • Every day, make sure that the fire alarm system is functional and that no problems are reported on the fire alarm panel. This verification can be carried out by the owner or his representative.
  • Each month, certain tests must be carried out on several elements of the network in order to ensure that the network is in working order. This inspection can be done by the owner, his representative, or a specialized firm.
  • Each year, more in-depth inspections, tests, and trials should be performed in addition to the weekly and monthly inspections. These tests and inspections must be carried out by a specialized firm and a complete inspection report must be obtained and kept.

Who can do the work?

All installation, repair, and modification work performed on a fire alarm system should be performed by a contractor holding the appropriate license (s) like us.

Inspection, on the other hand, does not require the contractor to be licensed. However, care must be taken because, if the unlicensed contractor discovers anomalies in the alarm system, the owner will have to deal with a second contractor with the appropriate licenses to make the necessary modifications, repairs, or replacements.

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